《德伯家的苔丝》分析苔丝的悲剧人生_英语论文.doc

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Abstract:Thomas Hardy(1840-1928) is an outstanding English realistic novelist and poet. It was when British Capitalism invaded the country that Hardy created his works. Hardy witnessed the farmers’ miserable life in his hometown and in the vicinity of Dorset. Hardy described the suffering of those farmers.

   Tess of the d'Urbervilles describes Tess, a country girl’s bitter experiences in her whole life. Beautiful and pure, industrious and kindhearted, clever Tess wants to live a happy life by her endeavors. However, under that social background, it is difficult for Tess to realize her dream. Instead, misfortunes come one after another. Tess’s tragedy is not only caused by external factors, such as social condition, worldly prejudice, hypocritical religion, Tess’s family and the two men in her life---Alec and Angel. There are also some internal factors that contribute to her tragedy, including her weak points and disadvantages in her character. Additionally, Tess’s tragedy is also a reflection of Hardy’s Fatalism. 

   This thesis attempts to analyze Tess’s tragedy from three aspects---- the social background which is a determining factor; the weak points of the main characters and finally Hardy’s Fatalism in this novel. Furthermore, implications from Tess to modern women are concluded: we should learn from Tess’s kindness and purity; on the other hand, we should have the awareness to be a modern woman, knowing how to regard ourselves and how to handle love.

Key words: Thomas Hardy, Tess, causes of Tess’s tragedy, implications

 

摘要:托马斯·哈代(Thomas Hardy, 1840-1928)是英国杰出的现实主义小说家和诗人。哈代的创作时期正值英国工业资本主义侵袭农村的时期。哈代目睹了这一时期他的故乡多赛特郡和附近地区农民的悲惨生活,并描写了这一地区农民所遭受的不幸和灾难。

   《德伯家的苔丝》描写了贫穷的农家女子苔丝一生的遭遇。苔丝美丽纯洁、勤劳善良,天资聪慧。她渴望凭借自己的劳动过上幸福生活,但是,在当时的社会中,她的愿望很难实现,厄运接踵而来。苔丝悲剧性的命运既是由外部原因造成的,如当时的社会环境、世俗偏见及虚伪的宗教, 苔丝的家庭和她身边的两个男人,同时也是有内部原因,如苔丝自身的弱点、性格上的缺点。另外,苔丝的悲剧也是哈代宿命论思想的体现。

   本文将从社会环境、主要人物性格缺点及宿命论这三大块来探讨造成苔丝悲剧的原因。另外,本文的亮点是本文最后将思考苔丝对现代女性的一些启示和思考,比如说我们应当学习苔丝的善良,具有苔丝的单纯,但我们也应当具有现代女性的意识,学会正确地看待自己,看待爱情。

关键词:托马斯·哈代  苔丝 悲剧原因 启示

 

  In conclusion, Tess of the d'Urbervilles is an outstanding one written by Hardy, from which we can see Hardy’s doubts towards the traditional morality and religious ethics. We can appreciate this novel’s deep thinking and artistic beauty. About the causes of Tess’s tragic life, many experts and writers have given their opinions.

  The present author has analyzed the causes of Tess’s tragedy from perspectives of social background, the main characters’ personalities and fatalism. First of all, Tess’s tragedy is determined by that social environment---the invasion of capitalism and the break up of the farmers. The awkward economic condition demands Tess, the oldest child in the family, to help her parents to release the heavy burden. The customary morality and hypocritical religion also lead to Tess’s tragic fate. During that time, woman’s virginity is considered to be her husband’s privilege. After losing virginity, Tess is reduced to vulnerable position by social prejudice and prevalent moral standards. She actually falls prey to the conventional thinking that “once sinned, sinned forever”. Alec and Angel are the two main causes of Tess’s tragedy, one is like Satan and the other one is like Angel. Alec ruins Tess physically and Angel destroys Tess mentally. And in this novel, we can also see some supernatural thing, that is fatalism, a mysterious and unconscious will uncaring to the individual. So in order to avoid Tess’s tragedy, the present writer holds that modern women should be resolute, confident, independent, and straightforward. 

 

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