Abstract:During growth of films, the incident angle of atoms and the substrate influence greatly the structure and property of films. Thus in this paper the deposition behavior of copper atoms was investigated by changing the incident angle and the substrate in a magnetron sputtering system. The morphologies of as-deposited copper films were then characterized by metalloscope and scanning electron microscope. With analysis of the morphological features of copper films, the deposition mechanisms of copper atoms with different incident angles on different substrates were further studied. The detailed work and outstanding contributions are concentrated as in the following:
(1) Copper nanowires/film composite structures were successfully fabricated at the incident angle of 27° on glass substrate, while at other incident angles or on other substrates no such composite structure formed.
(2) In the copper nanowires/film composite structures, copper nanowires with a unique orientation were parallel to the substrate and inlaid into the surface of a supporting copper film.
(3) The formation mechanism of copper nanowires/film composite structures was directed compressive stress effect.
(4) A completely new growth mode of layer-plus-wire growth was proposed in this paper.
Key words: copper; small incident angle deposition; copper nanowires/film composite structure; layer-plus-wire growth...