浅析无权处分的法律效力.doc

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摘要:无权处分问题异常复杂,关于其法律效力也存在各种学说。本文在对无权处分进行历史考察,内涵界定的基础上,分析不同物权变动模式下无权处分的法律效力,从而得出无权处分应界定为债权行为,它的效力应当不受处分人的“处分权”的影响,它已从传统的效力待定的法律行为类型中逃离,而成为有效的法律行为,法律应当确认无权处分债权行为的效力。至于无权处分中的物权变动(标的物所有权的转移)效力,在有效的债权行为的基础上,结合债权形式主义的物权变动模式和善意取得制度,这个问题便迎刃而解。无权处分人有无处分权以及原权利人是否追认只是债的履行问题,这样就避开了适用处分行为(物权行为)这个矛盾而又费解的规则。这样的立法不仅简洁实用,而且还能够使无权处分制度很好地与其他制度协调起来。

关键词:无权处分;债权行为;物权变动

 

Abstract: The problem of unauthorized disposition is singularly complex,also regarding a variety of theories of the legal effect. This article analyze the legal efficiency of unauthorized disposition in the different mode changes in property rights, on the basis of carrying out on the unauthorized disposition of historical research,connotation defined. So as to arrive at the arguemengts about the meaning of unauthorized disposition should be juristic act of bearing liability, and its has become effective juristic act which has escaped from the uncertain effect of juristic, the law should affirm its validity. On the basis of the effective act of bearing liability, combining it with the changing mode of right in rem in the light of the combining credict with formalism, the effect of right in rem in unauthorized disposition will be solved easily. Furthermore, the disposing right and reversals do not affect on validity of juristic act, only on performing contract,which contributes to withdraw exercising the contradictory and puzzling rules of juristic act to right in rem. As a result, the mode of legislation not only is simple and practical but also makes the system of unauthorized disposition harmony with others.

Key words: unauthorized disposition; claims acts; Property changes

 

无权处分行为问题是一个复杂的法律问题,它涉及到诸多民事制度的衔接与协调,它尤其涉及到与物权变动模式、善意取得和权利瑕疵制度的协调问题。在意思主义的物权变动模式下,如果允许他人通过私下的合意而处分他人之物,即认可无权处分行为的效力,这个世界将人人自危、不寒而栗。其错在把买卖关系中的债权关系和物权关系混为一团。其实就是在古罗马社会也是认可无权处分行为的债权效力的,只不过是不认可物权变动效力。在物权形式主义的物权变动模式下,虽然区分了无权处分行为中的债权关系和物权关系,但是却认为物权行为效力待定,这源于物权行为的有效以处分人有处分权为要件。“处分权”不影响债权行为的效力,却要影响物权行为的效力,在无权处分行为关系中,到底是要保护原权利人的利益还是要保护相对人的利益?德国法在价值选择上显得矛盾与冲突,逻辑混乱。

 

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