试论配偶权与第三者隐私权的冲突解决.doc

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摘要:配偶权作为婚姻关系当事人的一项基本身份权,显得尤为重要。从《婚姻法》第3条第2款“禁止重婚。禁止有配偶者与他人同居”、第4条“夫妻应当互相忠实”等规定来看,笔者认为《婚姻法》实质上已经纳入配偶权的部分内容,也包括学界尚存争议的忠实义务。另一方面,我国《侵权责任法》及相关司法解释虽规定了隐私权应受保护,但法律条文稀少而简单,现实中对隐私权的保护也较无力。权利冲突将长期存在,而配偶权与隐私权的权利冲突往往反映在婚外恋引发的离婚诉讼中,当无过错配偶一方采用偷拍、偷录等非常规手段取证,其行为则涉嫌侵犯第三者的隐私权,引发冲突。由于此权利冲突影响恶劣,因此有必要及时调控。学界对此已有不少研究,但较缺乏贴近实务的解决办法。基于以上因素,本文从四个方面展开来探讨此冲突的解决。首先阐述了此冲突解决的意义,其次解释了配偶权与隐私权的权利范围,重点是对它们权利边界的分析,即判断配偶权是否含忠实义务,该义务又是否已入法,以及第三者能否主张隐私权。再者对解决本权利冲突所应坚持的公序良俗原则和利益衡量原则阐述了笔者自己的观点。最后就如何制衡配偶权与隐私权,在具体操作办法层面提出了多条建议。力图在配偶权涉嫌侵犯第三者隐私权时,找到制衡之法,引导无过错配偶一方合法地维权取证。

关键词:配偶权;第三者隐私权;权利冲突;无过错方

 

Abstract:As a basic right of identity for a marriage of the parities, spouse right is particularly important. On the one hand, from the rules of paragraph 2 article 3 of the "Marriage Law" "bigamy shall be prohibited”. “No person who has a spouse living together with others", article 4 "husband and wife should be faithful to each other" and other rules, the author thinks that “Marriage Law” in essence has been included the part of spouse right in it, at the same time, including the duty of loyalty which was controversial in academic circles. On the other hand, the Tort Liability Law of our country and relevant judicial interpretation provides that the right for privacy should be protected, but the legal provisions are few and simple. And the protection of privacy is weak in reality. The rights conflict will exist for a long time. The conflict of spouse right and privacy right is often reflected in the affair of divorce proceedings. When one of the spouses with no fault uses the unconventional means such as candid camera, wiretap to obtain evidence, its behavior is suspected of infringement of third party’s privacy, which leads to conflict. It is necessary to control in a timely manner by reason of the bad influence of the right conflict. In the academic circles, it has quiet a few studies, but lack of the practical solutions. Based on the factors what has been mentioned, this paper would discuss the resolution to solve the conflict from four aspects. At the beginning, it states the significance of conflict resolution; Then, it explains the scope of protection of spouse and privacy. The key point is focus on the analysis of the right boundary, which judge the spouse right whether contain the duty of loyalty, whether have the obligation in law, and the third party whether can claim to privacy or not. What’s more, it should adhere to the principles of disgraceful consideration and benefit measure to solve the right conflict, which expounds the author’s point of view. Finally, in the operation of exclusionary rule, this paper presents several suggestions on how to balance the spouse rights and privacy. Trying to find the method of checks and balances, when the spouse rights suspected infringe the rights of third party, and guiding the one of the spouses with no fault takes the evidence and protect the rights legally.

Key Words: Spouse right;privacy right of third party;right conflict; unerring party

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